Sample Texts

SAMPLE 1: Literary/Historical

 

Source text - Spanish
Civilizing Argentina está centrado en la Generación de 1880 (G80), que tuvo su máximo representante en Julio A. Roca, dos veces Presidente de la Nación, y la acción desplegada en la modernización del país en torno a la ciencia y medicina. Se trata, en realidad, de un libro de historia de las ideas, ubicado en el contexto de la llegada del Liberalismo Positivista de origen Comteano y su influencia en el Estado Argentino a través del pensamiento científico.
La autora lo ha dividido en Introducción y Cuatro Partes, denominadas siguiendo la nomenclatura científica, Síntomas, Diagnóstico, Recetas e Higiene, y Epílogo, Notas, un Ensayo sobre las Fuentes, Index, Mapas e Ilustraciones. La calidad de la edición es impecable, en la escritura, las fotografías aportadas, la utilización de fuentes de diversos archivos y una gran bibliografía, con acento en la producción historiográfica de origen norteamericano.
Rodríguez comienza y termina su libro con una síntesis histórica, en la cual destaca que la Argentina es un país que su pasado lo condiciona a convulsiones y al autoritarismo político. La obra Facundo, o civilización i barbarie (1845) de Domingo F. Sarmiento, para quien el mal del país era su extensión, le sirve de marco.
Translation - English
Civilizing Argentina focuses on the Generation of 1880 (G80), whose greatest representative was two-term president Julio A. Roca, and the action that unfolded in the country at that time in the fields of science and medicine. At heart, it is a book about the history of ideas, placed in the context of the arrival of positivist liberalism, of a Comptean sort, and its influence on the Argentine state as channeled through scientific thought.
The book’s introduction is followed by four parts, titled according to scientific labels: symptoms, diagnosis, prescriptions and hygiene, and epilogue. The quality of the edition is impeccable: the writing, the supporting photographs, the use of sources from a variety of archives, and the large bibliography, with an emphasis on U.S. historiographic production.
Rodríguez begins and ends her book with a historic synthesis, in which she underscores that Argentina was a country whose past prepared it for unrest and political authoritarianism. Domingo F. Sarmiento’s Facundo (1845), which portrays the problems of the country as an extension of this past, serves as a framework

 

SAMPLE 2: Literary/Historical

Source text - Portuguese
Muitos estudiosos da história da América Latina colonial têm por hábito diferenciar nela a Indo-América da Afro-América. A primeira região encarnaria o cenário privilegiado de uma colonização cujos pilares seriam representados pela presença de maciços contingentes de populações pré-colombianas, notadamente nos Andes e na Mesoamérica. A segunda, demograficamente rarefeita de aborígenes ou deles esgotada precocemente, por isso mesmo dependeria da migração compulsória de milhões de africanos para tornar-se atrativa aos colonizadores europeus. O Brasil e o Caribe encarnariam os principais palcos do drama afro-americano.
Tal taxonomia personifica um desses clássicos exemplos em que o instrumento analítico se torna tão arraigado que transborda a consciência letrada e substitui a própria realidade a ser investigada. De fato, não são poucos os que tomam por “natural” e inassimilável o distanciamento entre indígenas e negros na história da América Latina. É possível que na raiz de tal arranjo esteja o fato de que a época da expansão e colonização européia do mundo foi também a do surgimento e consolidação de um sistema de classificação assimétrica dos tipos humanos em “raças” e “nações” sobejamente conhecido: brancos no topo, negros na base, intermediados por asiáticos e indígenas. Menos conhecido, entretanto, é o fato de que, simultaneamente ao seu aparecimento, as variadas formas assumidas pela colonização muitas vezes embaralhava semelhante taxonomia. Em tal circunstância, os indivíduos que os processos de miscigenação tornavam desviantes em relação ao sistema classificatório original ou bem se transformavam em “aberrações” ou simplesmente se lhes impunha uma incontornável invisibilidade.
Translation - English
Many scholars of Latin American colonial history have a habit of distinguishing between Indo-America and Afro-America. The first region is made up of places where the colonization process was grounded in the presence of massive contingents of pre-Columbian peoples, particularly in the Andes and Mesoamerica. The second region consists of places where the native population was scarce or was depleted early on; here, the colonial project depended on the forced immigration of millions of Africans in order to make the continent attractive to European settlers. Brazil and the Caribbean thus would constitute the main backdrop for the Afro-American drama.
This taxonomy is a classic example of a situation where the analytical instrument becomes so deeply rooted that it spills over into the academic conscience and replaces the reality to be investigated. In fact, it is not uncommon for scholars to take the separation of Indians and blacks in Latin American history as “natural” and unquestionable. This conceptualization may be rooted in the fact that the period of Europe’s global expansion and colonization coincided with the creation and consolidation of the well-known asymmetrical system that classified human types into “races” and “nations”: whites on top, blacks at the bottom, Indians and Asians somewhere in the middle. It is less well known, however, that the various forms that European colonization assumed in different locales often shook up this taxonomy. Under these circumstances, individuals of mixed heritage who did not fit within the original classificatory system were either turned into “aberrations” or simply had an indisputable invisibility imposed upon them.

 

SAMPLE 3: Technical (Chemistry)

Source text – Spanish

PROCEDIMIENTO 043: DETERMINACION DE ALCOHOL N-BUTILICO EN AIRE-METODO DE CROMATOGRAFIA DE GASES.

      1.  Especificaciones

a) sustancia: alcohol n-butílico;

      b) medio: aire;

      c) concentración de referencia: 100 ppm (305mg/m3);

      d) intervalo: de 170 a 610 mg/m3;

      e) coeficiente de variación (CVT): 0.065;

      f) procedimiento: adsorción con carbón activado. Desadsorción con disulfuro de carbono con 1% de 2-propanol, cromatografía de gases.

      g) precaución: todo el trabajo con disulfuro de carbono debe ser realizado en una campana por su alta toxicidad.

      2. Principio del método

      2.1  Un volumen conocido de aire se pasa a través de un tubo de carbón activado para atrapar los vapores orgánicos presentes.

      2.2  El carbón activado del tubo es transferido a un recipiente con tapa y la sustancia a analizar es desadsorbida con disulfuro de carbono con 1% de 2-propanol.

      2.3  Se inyecta una alícuota de la muestra desadsorbida al cromatógrafo de gases.

      2.4 El área del pico resultante se determina y compara con las áreas obtenidas de la inyección de patrones.

      3.  Intervalo y sensibilidad

      3.1  Este método fue validado sobre el intervalo de 170 a 610 mg/m3 a temperatura y presión atmosférica de 25°C y 100.125 kPa (298K y 751 mmHg) usando una muestra de 10 litros. Bajo las condiciones del tamaño de muestra (10 litros) el intervalo probable del método es de 30 a 900 mg/m3 a una sensibilidad del detector que da una deflexión casi completa en el graficador, para una muestra de 9 mg. El método es capaz de medir cantidades mucho menores si la eficiencia de desadsorción es adecuada. La eficiencia de desadsorción debe determinarse sobre el intervalo usado.

 

Translation – English

METHOD 043: DETERMINATION OF N-BUTYL ALCOHOL IN AIR-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD.

        1.     Specifications

        a)    substance: n-butyl alcohol;

        b)    medium: air;

        c)     reference concentration: 100 ppm (305mg/m3);

        d)    interval: from 170 to 610 mg/m3;

        e)     coefficient of variation(CVT): 0.065;

        f)     method: absorption with activated charcoal. Desorption with carbon disulfide plus 1% 2-propanol, gas chromatography.

        g)    warning: all work with carbon disulfide must be carried under a hood due to its high toxicity.

        2.     Principles of the method

        2.1 A known volume of air is passed through an activated charcoal tube to trap organic vapors present.

        2.2 The activated charcoal of the tube is transferred a lidded container and the substance to be analyzed is desorbed with carbon disulfide plus 1% 2-propanol.

        2.3 An aliquot from the desorbed sample is injected into the gas chromatograph.

        2.4 The area of the resulting peak is determined and compared with the areas obtained from the injection of standards.

        3.     Interval and sensitivity

        3.1 This method was validated over the interval of 170 to 610 mg/m3 at temperature and atmospheric pressure of 25°C and 100.125 kPa (298K and 751 mmHg) using a 10 liter sample. Under the conditions of the sample size (10 liters) the probable interval of the method is from 30 to 900 mg/m3 at detector sensitivity that is produced at an almost complete deflection in the graph, for a sample of 9 mg. The method is capable of measuring much smaller quantities if the desorption efficiency is adequate. The desorption efficiency must be determined over the interval used.

 

SAMPLE 4: Technical (Construction/Civil Engineering)

SOURCE TEXT: SPANISH

511-3. Áreas Clase I. Clasificados según el Artículo 500.

   a) Hasta un nivel de 45 cm sobre el nivel del piso. Para cualquier piso, el área completa hasta un nivel de 45 cm por arriba del piso, debe ser considerado como área Clase I, División 2.

   Excepción: Cuando se determine que existe ventilación mecánica que provee un mínimo de cuatro cambios de aire por hora.

   b) Cualquier fosa o depresión por debajo del nivel del piso. Cualquier fosa o depresión por debajo del nivel del piso debe considerarse como área Clase I, División 1 hasta el nivel del piso, excepto cuando en ellos haya seis cambios de aire por hora y el aire sea expelido hasta el nivel del piso, en cuyo caso puede declararse Clase I, División 2.

   Excepción: Los locales de servicio y lubricación sin surtidores (dispensarios), deben clasificarse de acuerdo con lo indicado en la Tabla 514-2.

   c) Áreas adyacentes a lugares definidos o con ventilación de presión positiva. Áreas adyacentes a lugares definidos en las cuales no es probable que se desprendan vapores inflamables, tales como cuartos de almacenamiento, cuartos de tableros de distribución y otros lugares similares, no deben ser consideradas peligrosas (clasificadas) cuando tengan ventilación mecánica a razón de cuatro o más cambios de aire por hora o estén separados efectivamente por paredes o tabiques.

   d) Áreas adyacentes por permiso especial. Las áreas adyacentes que por razón de ventilación, presión diferencial de aire o distanciamiento físico son tales que, no ofrecen peligro de ignición, se permite considerarlas como no-peligrosas.

   e) Unidades de despacho de combustible. Cuando existan unidades de despacho de combustible (que no sea gas de petróleo licuado, lo que está prohibido) colocadas dentro de la propiedad, deben cumplir con los requisitos del Artículo 514.

   Cuando se provee ventilación mecánica en el lugar de despacho, los controles deben estar bloqueados electromecánicamente de manera que el surtidor no pueda funcionar sin ventilación, según lo indicado en 500-5(b).

ARTICLE  510 – HAZARDOUS AREAS (CLASSIFIED) - SPECIFIC

510-1. Scope. Articles 511 through 517 establish the requirements for premises or parts of premises that are or could be hazardous due to the atmospheric concentration of flammable liquids, gases, or vapors, or due to the accumulation or deposits of materials that can easily be ignited.

510-2. General. The general provisions of this [NOM] apply to electrical wiring and equipment in premises within the scope of Articles 511 through 517, except those regulations that have been modified in these Articles.

 

Target text: Spanish

511-3. Class I Areas. Classified according to Article 500.

   a) Up to a level of 45 cm above floor level. On any floor, the entirety of the area up to a level of 45 cm above floor level shall be considered a Class I, Division 2 area.

   Exception: When it is determined that mechanical ventilation exists that provides a minimum of four air changes per hour.

   b) Any pit or depression below floor level. Any pit or depression below the floor level must be considered as a Class I, Division 1 area up to the level of the floor, except when there are six changes of air per hour in them, and the air is exhausted up to floor level, in which case they can be declared Class I, Division 2.

   Exception: Service and lubrication centers without gasoline pumps (dispensers) must be classified according to indications in Table 514-2.

   c) Areas adjacent to defined areas with positive-pressure ventilation. Areas adjacent to defined places in which is not likely that flammable vapors will be released, such as storage rooms, distribution control rooms, and other similar places, do not need to be considered hazardous (classified) when they have mechanical ventilation at a rate of four or more air changes per hour or are clearly separated by walls or partitions.

   d) Adjacent areas with special permission. Adjacent areas that by means of ventilation, differential air pressure, or physical distance such that they do not present danger of ignition are allowed to be considered non-hazardous.

   e) Fuel dispensing units. When there are units for dispensing fuel (other than liquid petroleum gasoline, which is prohibited) located on the property, the requirements of Article 514 must be complied with.